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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:guantianlang.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机械手(shou)(shou)由主体、驱动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)和(he)控制系(xi)统(tong)三个(ge)基本(ben)部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)成(cheng)。按机器人结(jie)构分(fen)类为(wei)直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标型,机械手(shou)(shou)沿二维直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标系(xi)移动(dong)。主体部(bu)分(fen)通常采(cai)(cai)用(yong)龙门式(shi)结(jie)构,由y向(xiang)横(heng)梁与(yu)导(dao)轨、z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen)、十字滑座(zuo)、立(li)柱、过渡连(lian)接板和(he)基座(zuo)等(deng)部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)成(cheng),z向(xiang)的直线(xian)运动(dong)皆为(wei)交(jiao)流伺服电(dian)动(dong)机通过蜗轮减速器驱动(dong)齿(chi)轮与(yu)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁、z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen)上固定(ding)的齿(chi)条(tiao)作滚动(dong),驱动(dong)移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)沿导(dao)轨快(kuai)速运动(dong)。移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)为(wei)质量较轻的十字滑座(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)由铝合金拉(la)制的型材(cai)。横(heng)梁采(cai)(cai)用(yong)方(fang)钢(gang)型材(cai),在横(heng)梁上安装有导(dao)轨和(he)齿(chi)条(tiao),通过滚轮与(yu)导(dao)轨接触,整个(ge)机械手(shou)(shou)都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度快,加(jia)速(su)度大(da),加(jia)减速(su)时(shi)间短(duan)。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较(jiao)重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工件时(shi),惯量(liang)(liang)大(da),因(yin)此(ci),伺服(fu)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要(yao)有(you)足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元(yuan)件也要(yao)有(you)足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)刚(gang)(gang)度及强度。只有(you)这样,才能(neng)使伺服(fu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高响应、高刚(gang)(gang)度及高精(jing)度要(yao)求。在(zai)选择合适伺服(fu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和运(yun)(yun)行节拍(pai)(pai),计(ji)算(suan)出伺服(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)位移和轨(gui)迹,对驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器PID参(can)数进行动(dong)(dong)(dong)态调整(zheng)。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)度指令,经变(bian)化、放大(da)并(bing)调整(zheng)处理(li)后(hou),传(chuan)递给(ji)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)单元(yuan),通过光(guang)纤(xian)传(chuan)感器对运(yun)(yun)行状态进行实时(shi)检测,在(zai)高速(su)搬(ban)运(yun)(yun)过程中(zhong),运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部(bu)件在(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到达给(ji)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度,并(bing)能(neng)在(zai)高速(su)行程中(zhong)瞬间准停,通过高分辩率绝对式编(bian)码(ma)器的(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)算(suan),控制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)误差和测量(liang)(liang)误差对运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)度的(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工件不同,质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)也不同,因(yin)此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规格和系列。在(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang),加(jia)工的(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)(pai)来选取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂(bei),夹持方式,则(ze)根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹具(ju)定(ding)夹方式来设计(ji)(见图2)。

机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借助(zhu)可(ke)编(bian)程序来处理和执行任务。机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要由手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置、运动部件(jian)及(ji)驱动部件(jian)组成(cheng)。通过对工(gong)件(jian)外形(xing)或工(gong)件(jian)上(shang)(shang)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)支(zhi)撑点(dian)(dian)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)工(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发(fa)动机加工(gong)柔性自(zi)动线物流(liu)输送中,桁(heng)架机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会根(gen)据缸(gang)体(ti)、缸(gang)盖、曲轴等工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外形(xing)特点(dian)(dian),选取不同的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)方(fang)式。柔性机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)(shang)采(cai)用(yong)气缸(gang)和电机进行定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换(huan)(huan)驱动,一(yi)套机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)可(ke)完成(cheng)不同品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作(zuo)。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)根(gen)据产品质量和外形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)大小采(cai)用(yong)系(xi)(xi)列(lie)化(hua)设计,机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安装方(fang)式相同,针(zhen)对不同系(xi)(xi)列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需切(qie)换(huan)(huan)相应的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即(ji)可(ke),满足快速切(qie)换(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)(de)需要。这样,当(dang)加工(gong)不同品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须变换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就(jiu)可(ke)实现,提(ti)高(gao)了桁(heng)架机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)柔性化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动(dong)线桁架机(ji)械手输送(song)装置的(de)发展及现(xian)状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)时代。就(jiu)目前而(er)言(yan), 在国内二(er)者均(jun)有(you)之。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪、摆杆、抬起(qi)步(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等形式。随(sui)(sui)着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)(you)其(qi)(qi)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)(shi)应小批量多(duo)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)称其(qi)(qi)为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带(dai)依然为(wei)(wei)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)又有(you)了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以(yi)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手)并(bing)存(cun),或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)由(you)(you)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手组(zu)成,这(zhei)是真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)是高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心配以(yi)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)(wei)敏捷(jie)(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),是敏捷(jie)(jie)制(zhi)(zhi)造系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)成部(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)(sui)意(yi)改(gai)变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装位置(zhi)不(bu)再象刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)或(huo)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进(jin)行(xing)严(yan)格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装,且(qie)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根(gen)据生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)节拍(pai)及输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而(er)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)。而(er)真正体现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一面是,当被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品(pin)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适(shi)(shi)应而(er)全部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改(gai)变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)(cheng)序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手局部(bu)结构即可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协调(diao)统(tong)(tong)一。因(yin)此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手才(cai)在当今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)越来越多(duo)地(di)被(bei)采(cai)用(yong),使整个(ge)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)通过(guo)(guo)信息(xi)流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控制(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong),所需各种(zhong)(zhong)信息(xi)收集(ji)、处(chu)理、反馈,并(bing)通过(guo)(guo)电子(zi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)(qi)他控制(zhi)(zhi)装置(zhi)(液(ye)压、气压装置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设(she)备实行(xing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)级控制(zhi)(zhi)。信息(xi)流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)由(you)(you)中(zhong)央(yang)管理计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控制(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元(yuan)控制(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络(luo)组(zu)成。目前,汽车制(zhi)(zhi)造业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖(gai)及曲轴等大批量关键零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了(le)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距

当下(xia),我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展很快,技术水(shui)(shui)平有了很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距变得(de)越(yue)来越(yue)小,甚(shen)至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已经没有什么差(cha)距。特(te)别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)(da)科(ke)技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开展,为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上档次上水(shui)(shui)平提(ti)高了加(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成(cheng)绩显(xian)而(er)(er)易(yi)见(jian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这(zhei)几年发展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快,但柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)(shui)平和(he)(he)档次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距还很明显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较为普(pu)遍,而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生产(chan)市(shi)场所(suo)采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口。如无锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体(ti)缸(gang)盖柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧(ning)紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)。输送(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输送(song)。仅以汽(qi)车(che)制造业而(er)(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团和(he)(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团等(deng)生产(chan)出了该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并在生产(chan)实际中得(de)到了应用(yong)。图4是大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)种(zhong)缸(gang)体(ti),分别为四缸(gang)和(he)(he)六缸(gang),其输送(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手两(liang)个(ge),一个(ge)上料,一个(ge)下(xia)料。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong),标志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)(shui)准迈进。

上述提及的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)只是数量上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因(yin)还是国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)(yi)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)。柔性(xing)加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是从国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口(kou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内还没有专(zhuan)门生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)厂(chang)(chang)家。如今,国(guo)(guo)内巨一(yi)(yi)等一(yi)(yi)些桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂(chang)(chang)家的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔性(xing)加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)带(dai)来了(le)希望,进而(er)(er)缩小了(le)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)在(zai)(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)方(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju),国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)在(zai)(zai)柔性(xing)加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)也越来越多,从而(er)(er)打(da)破国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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