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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:guantianlang.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心吗?——加(jia)工工件特征(zheng)

加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心类型的(de)(de)(de)(de)选定需要(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备(bei)价(jia)格等因(yin)素(su),根据所选零件(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行。如(ru)果您的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)具(ju)有以(yi)下特征,则(ze)应(ying)选择卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以(yi)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)零件(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径向辐(fu)射状排列的(de)(de)(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面(mian),如(ru)箱体类、壳体类零件(jian)(jian)等,应(ying)选择卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)度要(yao)求较(jiao)高,宜(yi)选用高精(jing)密卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;零件(jian)(jian)在一(yi)次装(zhuang)夹中(zhong)需要(yao)完成多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选择立卧复合(he)式(shi)五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心。当然,上述各点也(ye)不是绝对的(de)(de)(de)(de),一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心正朝着复合(he)化方(fang)向发展,另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)选型时要(yao)综合(he)考虑生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求和设备(bei)资(zi)金等因(yin)素(su),要(yao)以(yi)性价(jia)比来衡量选型方(fang)案的(de)(de)(de)(de)合(he)理(li)性。

建议:采购用(yong)户(hu)需要根据(ju)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)范(fan)围等特征来确定是(shi)否使用(yong)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)以及使用(yong)什么(me)样的卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作台尺寸

这是(shi)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心的主参数,主要取(qu)决于典(dian)(dian)型零(ling)件的外(wai)廓尺寸(cun)、装(zhuang)夹(jia)方式等(deng)(deng)。应选择比(bi)典(dian)(dian)型零(ling)件外(wai)廓尺寸(cun)稍(shao)大一些(xie)的工作(zuo)(zuo)台,以便留(liu)出(chu)安(an)装(zhuang)夹(jia)具所需的空间(jian),保证零(ling)件在其上(shang)面能够顺利装(zhuang)夹(jia),此(ci)外(wai)还(hai)应考虑工作(zuo)(zuo)台的承载能力、T形槽数量和尺寸(cun)等(deng)(deng),小尺寸(cun)的比(bi)较通用,比(bi)如站内的卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)(deng)。

建议:目前市场上(shang)的(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸多为(wei)1000以下(xia)的(de),能够满(man)足(zu)大(da)多数(shu)用户的(de)需求(qiu)。

(2)坐标轴(zhou)行程(cheng)

最基本(ben)的(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)(zuo)标轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)和工作(zuo)台尺寸(cun)有(you)相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例关系(xi),工作(zuo)台面(mian)(mian)的(de)(de)(de)大小基本(ben)上确定了加(jia)(jia)(jia)工空间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)大小。如(ru)个别零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)尺寸(cun)大于卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)时(shi),则必须(xu)要(yao)求零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工区域(yu)处于机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)范围之(zhi)内,此外还(hai)要(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑零件(jian)(jian)是否与机(ji)床(chuang)交换刀具(ju)的(de)(de)(de)空间(jian)(jian)干(gan)涉、与机(ji)床(chuang)防(fang)护罩等附(fu)件(jian)(jian)发生(sheng)干(gan)涉等系(xi)列问(wen)题。而(er)对需要(yao)多(duo)轴(zhou)联动(dong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心 (如(ru)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)回(hui)转(zhuan)坐(zuo)(zuo)标A、B、C或(huo)附(fu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标U、V、W),如(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动(dong)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心,这就需要(yao)特殊(shu)订(ding)货,同(tong)时(shi)必须(xu)对相(xiang)应(ying)配套的(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)(cheng)软件(jian)(jian)、测(ce)量手段以(yi)及机(ji)床(chuang)价格等有(you)全面(mian)(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考(kao)(kao)虑和安排。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用(yong)户需(xu)(xu)要(yao)根据加工工件规格选(xuan)择(ze)不同坐标轴(zhou)行程的卧式加工中心,多轴(zhou)联动需(xu)(xu)要(yao)特殊定制。

(3)主轴电动机功(gong)率与转矩(ju)

它反(fan)映了(le)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)的切削效率,也从一(yi)个侧面反(fan)映了(le)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)的切削刚性和机(ji)床整体刚度(du)。主(zhu)(zhu)轴电动(dong)机(ji)功率在(zai)同(tong)类(lei)(lei)规格的卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)上可以有各种不同(tong)的配置,同(tong)类(lei)(lei)规格的主(zhu)(zhu)轴转(zhuan)速(su)不同(tong)的卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin),主(zhu)(zhu)轴电动(dong)机(ji)功率可以相差很大。

建议:采购用户应根据自身典(dian)型零件毛坯余量大(da)小、切削能(neng)力 (单位时(shi)间金属(shu)切削量)、要求达到的(de)加(jia)工精度、实际(ji)能(neng)配(pei)置的(de)刀具等因素综合(he)选择。

(4)主(zhu)轴转速与进给速度

需要(yao)高(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削或超低速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时,应关注主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)的转速(su)(su)范围。特别是高(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时,既要(yao)有高(gao)的主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su),同(tong)时也要(yao)具备与主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)相匹配的进给速(su)(su)度。目前卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)高(gao)速(su)(su)化(hua)趋势(shi)发展很快,主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)从每分钟几千转到(dao)几万转,直(zhi)线坐(zuo)标快速(su)(su)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)速(su)(su)度从10—20/min上升到(dao)80m/min以上,当然其功能部件(jian)如(ru)电主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)、直(zhi)线电动(dong)(dong)机、直(zhi)线滚动(dong)(dong)导轨、主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)承等及相配套的光栅尺、刀(dao)具等附件(jian)价格(ge)也都相应上升,甚至很昂贵。

建议(yi):采(cai)购用户必须根据自身的(de)技术(shu)能(neng)力和配套能(neng)力合(he)理作出卧式加工中心的(de)合(he)理选型。

(5)刀库(ku)容量

可(ke)以(yi)根据被加(jia)工(gong)零件的(de)工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果来(lai)确定(ding)(ding)所需(xu)数(shu)量(liang)(liang),通常以(yi)典(dian)型零件在一次装夹(jia)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)所需(xu)刀(dao)具(ju)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)来(lai)确定(ding)(ding)刀(dao)库(ku)的(de)容(rong)量(liang)(liang),卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)以(yi)选(xuan)用40把刀(dao)左右的(de)刀(dao)库(ku)为宜。同时要关注最(zui)大(da)刀(dao)具(ju)直径与(yu)长度(du)以(yi)及最(zui)大(da)刀(dao)具(ju)重(zhong)量(liang)(liang)等。用于FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin),应选(xuan)择大(da)容(rong)量(liang)(liang)刀(dao)库(ku),甚至配(pei)置可(ke)交(jiao)换刀(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普通卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心选(xuan)择(ze)40把刀左(zuo)右的(de)刀库(ku)(ku)即够(gou)用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或FMS的(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心应选(xuan)择(ze)大容量刀库(ku)(ku)。

3我需要选(xuan)用(yong)什么精度(du)的(de)卧式加工中心?——精度(du)的(de)选(xuan)定

加工中心的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)等级主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)根据典型零件关(guan)键(jian)部位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)来(lai)确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)、重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du),特别是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du),它(ta)反映(ying)了坐(zuo)标(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)性(xing),是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)衡量该轴是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)否稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠工作(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本指标(biao)。特别值(zhi)(zhi)得注意的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),选型订货(huo)(huo)时(shi)(shi)必须全面分析,不(bu)(bu)能简单地(di)看产品样本所列的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)数值(zhi)(zhi),因(yin)为(wei)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)数值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检测方法(fa)不(bu)(bu)同(tong),数值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含(han)义(yi)就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样本、合格证所列出的(de)(de)(de)单位(wei)长度(du)(du)(du)上允许的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)负值(zhi)(zhi)(一般(ban)为(wei)正(zheng)负0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)不(bu)(bu)明确(que)的(de)(de)(de),订货(huo)(huo)时(shi)(shi)要(yao)特别注意,一定(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)IOS(国际标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国机床制造商协会标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)NAS(美国标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及(ji)GB(中国标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等,进而(er)分析各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)检测计算方法(fa)和检测环境条件,才不(bu)(bu)会产生(sheng)误解。

铣圆精度是综(zong)合评(ping)价卧式加工中心有关数控轴的(de)伺(si)服(fu)跟随运动特性和数控系统插补功能的(de)主要指(zhi)标之一。不(bu)论典型(xing)零件是否有此需要,为了将来可(ke)能的(de)需要及更(geng)好(hao)地控制精度,必须重视这(zhei)一指(zhi)标。

要特别(bie)注(zhu)意区别(bie)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)与机床精(jing)度(du)两个不同的(de)(de)概(gai)念。将生产(chan)(chan)厂(chang)家(jia)样(yang)本上(shang)或产(chan)(chan)品(pin)合格证上(shang)的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)当作(zuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)是(shi)错误(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)。样(yang)本或合格证上(shang)标明的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)是(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心本身的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du),而(er)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)是(shi)包括(kuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心本身所允许(xu)误(wu)(wu)差在内(nei)的(de)(de)整个工艺(yi)系统(tong)各种因(yin)素所产(chan)(chan)生的(de)(de)误(wu)(wu)差总和。整个工艺(yi)系统(tong)误(wu)(wu)差产(chan)(chan)生的(de)(de)原因(yin)是(shi)很复杂的(de)(de),很难用(yong)线性关系定量表达。选(xuan)型(xing)时,可(ke)参考工序能力系数Cp的(de)(de)评定方法来作(zuo)为机床加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)的(de)(de)选(xuan)型(xing)依据。一般而(er)言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高精密的几款卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心性能都不错。

建议:采购(gou)用户在挑选不同精(jing)度的卧式(shi)加工中心时,需要考虑:不同标准对应的单位(wei)长度含义(yi);重视铣圆(yuan)精(jing)度指标;区别加工精(jing)度和机床精(jing)度。

4我应该选择哪种数控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统?——数控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统的选定

数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)分为基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),可以(yi)从操作方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)、用户功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)、驱动形式(shi)(shi)、反馈形式(shi)(shi)、接口形式(shi)(shi)、检测与(yu)测量、报警与(yu)提示、故(gu)障诊断等方(fang)(fang)面(mian)综合衡(heng)量。基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)是(shi)必须提供的(de),而(er)只有当用户选(xuan)择(ze)了(le)选(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)后,厂家才会另(ling)行提供并另(ling)行加(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一(yi)般较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总(zong)体而(er)言,数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)一(yi)定要(yao)根据加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)需(xu)要(yao)来(lai)选(xuan)择(ze),订购时既要(yao)把需(xu)要(yao)的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)订全(quan),不能(neng)(neng)遗漏(lou),同时避免使用率(lv)不高(gao)而(er)造成(cheng)浪(lang)费,还需(xu)注(zhu)意(yi)各功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)之间的(de)关联性(xing)。另(ling)一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面(mian),在可供选(xuan)择(ze)的(de)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)中,如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产华(hua)中数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差别很(hen)大,价(jia)格亦相差很(hen)大,进口系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决定其价(jia)格的(de)高(gao)低。总(zong)体上(shang)来(lai)看,法兰克系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)比比较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国内(nei)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心使用比例比较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站(zhan)内(nei)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心使用法兰克数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)也(ye)比较(jiao)(jiao)多,比如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比较(jiao)(jiao)好的(de)选(xuan)择(ze)。多台(tai)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心选(xuan)型时,应尽(jin)可能(neng)(neng)选(xuan)用同一(yi)厂家的(de)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样(yang)操作、编(bian)程、维修都比较(jiao)(jiao)方(fang)(fang)便(bian)。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需(xu)要选(xuan)择几(ji)台卧式加工(gong)中心能达到的(de)我的(de)产量要求?——生(sheng)产能力的(de)估算(suan)

选(xuan)型(xing)时,必(bi)须要(yao)考(kao)虑卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)能(neng)达到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)生产能(neng)力(li)(li),即要(yao)求选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在一(yi)(yi)年之内能(neng)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几(ji)种典型(xing)零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)(chu)多少数(shu)(shu)量的(de)(de)零(ling)件。要(yao)得到(dao)(dao)这些数(shu)(shu)据必(bi)须对每一(yi)(yi)种确(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件进行(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生产节(jie)拍的(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)(suan)。一(yi)(yi)般步骤(zhou)为:首(shou)先,根据已选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件进行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)分析,初步确(que)定(ding)一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路线,在这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路线中(zhong)选(xuan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)准备在卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第二,根据现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参(can)(can)数(shu)(shu),估(gu)算(suan)(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)每道在卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)单(dan)(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间;第三(san),由每个(ge)单(dan)(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间计算(suan)(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)选(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)件在卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)总(zong)时间,进而计算(suan)(suan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)年产量即生产能(neng)力(li)(li)。如果估(gu)算(suan)(suan)结果达不(bu)到(dao)(dao)目标(biao)值,但(dan)相差不(bu)大,则(ze)可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参(can)(can)数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)以调(diao)整;如果相差很大,则(ze)应(ying)考(kao)虑增加(jia)(jia)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)台数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)配置。

建议:采购用户需要根据工(gong)(gong)件加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产节拍的估算,决(jue)定(ding)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)中心配备(bei)台数。

6卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心有(you)好(hao)多选(xuan)配的附(fu)(fu)件(jian)我(wo)应该如何选(xuan)配?——其(qi)他功能部件(jian)及附(fu)(fu)件(jian)的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标(biao)轴数和联动轴数

坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数和(he)联动轴(zhou)数均应满足典型零件加(jia)工要(yao)求(qiu)。一般情(qing)况下(xia),同(tong)厂家、同(tong)规(gui)格、同(tong)等精度的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心,增(zeng)加(jia)一个标(biao)(biao)准坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou),价格约增(zeng)加(jia)30%—50%。尽(jin)管(guan)增(zeng)加(jia)坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数可(ke)以强化加(jia)工中心的(de)功能,是机床上档次的(de)标(biao)(biao)志(zhi)之一,但最终(zhong)还(hai)是要(yao)在工艺要(yao)求(qiu)和(he)资(zi)金条件下(xia)平衡决(jue)定。

(2)工作(zuo)台

卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)可配置(zhi)用于分(fen)度的回(hui)转工(gong)作台和数控回(hui)转工(gong)作台,后者(zhe)能够实(shi)现(xian)任意(yi)分(fen)度,作为B轴与其他轴联(lian)动控制。回(hui)转工(gong)作台配置(zhi)与否以(yi)(yi)及如何配置(zhi)必须以(yi)(yi)实(shi)际需要(yao)来确定(ding),以(yi)(yi)经济(ji)、实(shi)用为目的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择主要(yao)考虑换刀时(shi)间与可靠性。过分强调(diao)换刀时(shi)间会使(shi)加工中心的(de)价格大幅度提高(gao)并使(shi)故(gu)障(zhang)率上(shang)升(sheng)。据(ju)统计,加工中心的(de)故(gu)障(zhang)中约有(you)50%与ATC有(you)关,因此,在满足(zu)使(shi)用要(yao)求的(de)前提下(xia),尽量选(xuan)(xuan)用可靠性高(gao)的(de)ATC,以(yi)降低故(gu)障(zhang)率和整机(ji)成(cheng)本

(4)必(bi)要(yao)的附件、配(pei)套件

选型时,还应注意选用(yong)(yong)一(yi)些配套件及附件,尽量避(bi)免(mian)因缺少一(yi)个几(ji)万元就能购买的(de)(de)附件而影响卧(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)正常运行(xing)。慎重选择刀(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)具也(ye)是(shi)保证(zheng)卧(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心正常运行(xing)的(de)(de)关(guan)键,最佳的(de)(de)选择办法应是(shi)根据典型零件所需的(de)(de)品种(zhong)和(he)数量来确定,并在(zai)使用(yong)(yong)中(zhong)陆续添置(zhi)。在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)构(gou)成中(zhong),排(pai)屑装(zhuang)置(zhi)、防护装(zhuang)置(zhi)和(he)对刀(dao)装(zhuang)置(zhi) (如(ru)刀(dao)具预调(diao)仪(yi))等均(jun)是(shi)必需的(de)(de),对一(yi)些尽管不(bu)是(shi)必需的(de)(de)配套件,但如(ru)果(guo)价格(ge)不(bu)高,对使用(yong)(yong)带来很多(duo)方(fang)便,也(ye)应尽量选用(yong)(yong),如(ru)附件铣头、储刀(dao)料架、运刀(dao)具车、装(zhuang)卸器等。

建议:配(pei)件越(yue)(yue)高,能(neng)实现的功能(neng)越(yue)(yue)多,但价(jia)格也越(yue)(yue)贵,采(cai)购(gou)用户需要根(gen)据加工需求酌情选配(pei)。

7卧式加工中心选型时还(hai)有(you)什么(me)其他(ta)需要注(zhu)意的(de)?——需要注(zhu)意的(de)一些问题(ti)

(1)结构设计

加工中心对其床身、立柱(zhu)、工作台、主轴以及刀库等功能(neng)部(bu)件的(de)结构(gou)设计有着(zhe)很高(gao)(gao)的(de)要(yao)求,以达到(dao)其高(gao)(gao)强度、高(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)抗振(zhen)性和稳定(ding)性的(de)目的(de)。选型时,应特(te)别注(zhu)意(yi)把其结构(gou)作为一项重要(yao)的(de)具体内容来进行要(yao)求与考虑。

(2)功能(neng)与加工的适应性

虽(sui)然(ran)加工中(zhong)心可(ke)以(yi)进行钻、扩、铣(xian)、镗、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃至车削 (如车铣(xian)复合加工中(zhong)心)等多种加工,但是(shi)在具体选择时,还(hai)应根据具体需(xu)要(yao)来考虑机床的(de)功能与加工是(shi)否相适应等问(wen)题。要(yao)注意以(yi)下几点:

A、复杂曲线(xian)加(jia)工时(shi),要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)CNC是否有(you)所需要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)曲线(xian)插补功能(neng),或(huo)选择什么方式逼近加(jia)工曲线(xian)并保(bao)证(zheng)所要(yao)(yao)求的(de)(de)表面粗糙(cao)度。三(san)维加(jia)工时(shi),要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)选择适合的(de)(de)刀具结构,还要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)程序编制能(neng)力,如有(you)必要(yao)(yao)则必须(xu)配备自(zi)动编程装(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)后置(zhi)处理编程装(zhuang)置(zhi)。

B、需要(yao)(yao)进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)(xue) (非(fei)攻螺(luo)纹(wen)方(fang)式(shi))时,不仅(jin)(jin)要(yao)(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)功能(neng)(neng)、螺(luo)旋线插(cha)补功能(neng)(neng)和主轴转(zhuan)动与进(jin)给同步功能(neng)(neng),还要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)机床(chuang)是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有径向(xiang)进(jin)给装(zhuang)置、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有主轴在(zai)旋转(zhuan)方(fang)向(xiang)上任意角度(du)位置准确定位功能(neng)(neng)。否(fou)(fou)则,仅(jin)(jin)在(zai)数控系统(tong)中用了螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)功能(neng)(neng)仍然无法(fa)进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)C、采用金刚铰、浮动镗和挤压加工(gong)等特(te)种加工(gong)时,既(ji)要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)适宜的自动换刀(dao)的条件(jian),又要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)选择(ze)合适的刀(dao)具(ju)结构和切(qie)削(xue)(xue)用量,应尽(jin)可(ke)能(neng)(neng)在(zai)购(gou)买(mai)主机时一(yi)并购(gou)置部(bu)分易损部(bu)件(jian)及(ji)其他附件(jian)等。

D、如(ru)果(guo)有应(ying)用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的(de)规划(hua),或要进行网络制(zhi)造,则要注意(yi)通(tong)信功(gong)能(neng),应(ying)选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通(tong)信、CAN总(zong)线等接口的(de)系统。

(3)运转的可靠(kao)性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用户(hu)在选型(xing)时(shi),需要对卧式加工中心整体的结构(gou)设(she)计、可(ke)靠(kao)性以及价加工适应性有客观的认识。


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